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85mm S-18 Tank Gun

Usage:

Production tanks and SP-Guns: none.
Experimental SP-Guns: SU-85-I, SU-85-IV

The first Soviet 85mm tank gun was introduced in 1939. It was mounted experimentally on the T-28 and KV series tanks, but was dropped from production for a number of reasons. In late 1941 and early 1942, Soviet engineers independently designed numerous variants of the 85mm tank gun, however, it was at this time the opinion of the NKV and NKTP that this was not a practical avenue of investigation due to the greater cost of existing 85mm ammunition over similar 76mm ammunition, also there was no 85 mm HE projectile developed but only a fragmentation.

In 1943, after Germany introduced two new tanks (PzKpfw VI Tiger and PzKpfw V Panther) to the battlefield, and insufficient effectiveness of the explosion power of the 76mm against field fortification, and interest in the 85mm weapons was reinvigorated. Projects outlined in 1941-1942 but not realized were revived. The most advanced was developed in "Kalinin" Factory #8 but it used a type of muzzle brake which considered to be inappropriate for a tank gun.

In connection with this, TsAKB began development of a project to create a new tank gun. In the winter of 1942-1943 it was completed using the S-18 tank gun, approved by the NKV, and in March, 1943, Factory #9 built two prototype models (due to the fact that the TsAKB had no production capability available at this time). Production of the gun commenced slowly, and when they were finally ready for testing, it became clear that the gun shared the design problems of previous models. Design Bureau of Factory #9 under the directorship of F. Petrov was tasked with the design of changes. The TsAKB, under the administration of V. Grabin, continued on its own. Fortunately, neither rested in their efforts. Experimental weapons turned out to function normally, but the leaders and designers of the projects began to undermine each other's efforts. As a result, the first experimental tank "Object 237" was armed with a mock-up S-18 in its turret. After this, both S-18s were finished, and mounted in two prototype models of the SU-85 self-propelled gun - the SU-85-I and the SU-85-IV.

S-18 GUN SPECIFICATION
ParameterValue
Calibre, mm 85
Bore lenght, clb ?
Weight of pendulous elements, kg ?
Weight of recoil elements, kg ?
Normal recoil length, mm ?
Max. recoil length, mm ?
Ammunition fixed
Ballistic new
Practical ROF, shot/min. ?
AMMUNITION FOR THE D-5, S-18, S-31, S-53, ZIS-S-53 GUNS
SHELLPROJECTILEPROPELLANT CHARGE
IndexWeight, kgIndexWeight, kgLength, clbWeight of a charge, gramFuseIndexWeight, kg
HIGH EXPLOSIVE, FRAGMENTATION
UO-365 15.95 O-365 9.2 3.4 0.646 T-5 G-365 2.48
UO-365K 16.3 O-365K 9.54 3.4 0.646 KTM-1, KTM-1-U G-365 2.5
UO-365KV 14.95 O-365KV 9.54 4.1 0.67 V-429, KTM-1-U, KTM-1, KTMZ-1-U, KTMZ-1, MG-N G-365 2.6
UO-365G 14.95 O-365G 9.54 4.1 0.741 KTM-1-O', KTM-1, KTMZ-1-U, KTMZ-1, MG-N G-365 1.5-1.8
UO-367* 14.95 O-367 9.54 4 0.703-0.741 KTM-1 G-365 1.5-1.8
UO-367A* 14.95 O-367A** 9.54 4.2 0.67 KTM-1-U, KTM-1, MG-N G-365 1.5-1.8
UO-367AV* 14.95 O-367AV** 9.54 4.1 0.67 V-429, KTM-1-U, KTM-1, MG-N G-365 1.5-1.8
O'I^-367AG* 14.95 O-367AG** 9.54 4.1 0.67 KTM-1-U, KTM-1, MG-N G-365 1.5-1.8
ARMOR PIERCING
UBR-365 16 BR-365 9.2 4.3 0.164 MD-5, MD-7 G-365 2.48-2.6
UBR-365K 16 BR-365K 9.2 3.1 0.048 MD-8 G-365 2.48-2.6
UBR-367* 16 BR-367 9.2 3.64 0.044 MD-8, DBR-2 G-365 2.63
ARMOR PIERCING SUB-CALIBER (HVAP)
UBR-365P 11.42 BR-365P 4.99 3 N/A N/A G-365 2.5-2.85
UBR-367P* 11.72 BR-367P 5.3 3 N/A N/A G-365 2.5
UPBR-367* 11.72 PBR-367 5.3 3 N/A N/A G-365 2.5
SHAPED-CHARGE ANTI-TANK (HEAT)
UBK-367* 14.95 BK-367 (BK-367M) 9.25 7 0.994 GKN G-365 1.3
ZBK2* (ZBK2M) 14.95 BK2**** 7.351 7 0.935 GPV-1, GPV-2 G-365 1.3
CANISTER AND SHRAPNEL
n/a
INCENDIARY
n/a
SMOKE
UD-1 16.3 D-2 9.54 4.1 - KTM-1-U G-365 2.6
UD-2 14.95 D-2 9.54 4.1 - KTM-1-U G-365 1.5-1.8
UD-367 15.65 D-3672 10.07 4 - KTM-2 G-365 1.5-1.8

* Developed after the end of WW2;
** Case made of cast iron;
*** Ballisctic capped;
**** Fin-stabilised.

Translated by: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Sources: "Artillerijskoye Vooruzhevie Sovetskikh Tankov 1940-1945" Armada-Vertical, #4, 1999


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